In my previous post I talked about how I solved the issue of enemies listening to noises created by the player. More important even than that hearing sense is the sight. Enemies must be able to see when the player is in front of them and react accordingly.
Seeing the player
For the enemies to see the player and react to its presence I have decided to use a sight cone, “trick” used in multiple games like the Commandos saga, Mark of the Ninja and many more.
The easiest way I’ve found to do this is to generate a triangle of lenght L and width W in the direction where the enemy is looking and then check collisions with the player’s bounding box. Just creating the triangle has been a bit of a pain for me as I’m not that good with math (I’m truly awful). Thankfully internet is full of websites with great resources like this one. Following that recipe I managed to rotate the triangle around the enemy and check the collisions with the player’s object. If there’s no collision between the player and the triangle the enemy continues with its current state. But if there’s a collision with the player we start a new set of checks.
Now that we have determined that the player is intersection or inside the vision cone, we need to see if there’s anything between the enemy and it’s prey. – Just to be clear, at this stage we still haven’t changed the enemy’s state. – Game Maker Studio 2 doesn’t have a raytrace function (I might be wrong) but it has a series of collision detection techniques that will come handy. We determine a series of points in the players object and we trace lines from the enemies position (or it’s head) to those points. Those lines are collision lines and we check if there is collision not with the player but with a solid object. If the function returns true it means that there is a solid object between the enemy and the player and therefore the enemy is not seeing the player.
As I said before, I trace more than one line between the enemy and the player. The reason behind this is that checking, for example, from the enemy’s position to the player’s position is very limited. I that case, Both legs of the player could be visible for the enemy but because we would be checking with the center of the object the enemy would not now. To have a better system I’m currently using the four corners of the bounding box of the player object. That gives me a much better idea of what the enemy is actually seeing, though I have already decided that I will increase the number of points the enemy checks, adding at least another one at the center of the player object.
Once we’ve done all this checks (remember, 4 different collision lines), we count them. If the number of lines that have returned negative (no collision with solid objects, they reach the player) are more than 2 then we change the enemy state to combat.
Is that the player?
Our sight is not perfect. Not everything we see is perfectly clear. There are factors like the distance between us and objects and objects that are in our periphery, Things that we see but more as a shape than a clear object or entity. To implement this in the game I have added a second sight cone (or triangle), repeating the exact same process I have described for the primary sight cone.
By adding a secondary cone we can add another state for the enemy, one in which he gets suspicious and goes to investigate. It’s an intermediate state that is between idle (patrol, guard a position, etc) and straight up combat. Having this can give way to interesting situations where you have been spotted by the enemy but have chance to escape without engaging in combat or even make the enemies suspicious on purpose to take them away from the place they are guarding.
For me, since the moment I implemented this second sight cone (and the associated behaviours), I started to feel like the game was finally shaping up into something playable and engaging.
Letting the player know what’s going on
All this collision checking I’ve been talking about is something that is “under the hood”. The player can see the results of this interactions but that is not enough. For example, in MGSV when an enemy spots you, even if it is from far, the game immediately lets you know that there is a menace and where is it. To do so it uses a series of visual and audio clues, including an arrow pointing in the direction of the enemy that has seen you, animations on the enemy that makes it clear that they are suspicious, etc.
Obviously I can’t do as much as that game did, but I can take advantage of the 2d, top-down nature of my game to make it even more obvious and using less resources. As you might have seen on the Commandos screenshot at the beginning of this post, painting the sight cone of the enemies is an option when your game camera is not that close to the main character. And that is exactly what I’ve done.
To do so I had to go back to look onto the raytraicing issue as I need to “cut” the cone when there are walls intersecting with it. Again, thanks to the internet gods I found a simple way of doing so combining a couple of built-in functions of GMS2. Because there are a couple of steps involved in the “painting” of this cone I’m just going to list them:
- Trace a ray from the point of origin of the triangle to one of the other vertexes. This is how we do it:
- Move 1px along the line between the 2 vertex
- Check for collision with solid objects at this point
- If there is a collision, update the vertex of the section and exit the loop. Repeat if there’s no collision.
- If we reach the end of the line, end the loop
- Once we have determined that side of the sub-triangle, we rotate that line from the origin n degrees.
- Repeat point 1 for the second line.
- Paint the sub-triangle with the information gathered.
- Set the second line as line one of the next triangle.
- Repeat from point 2 until the sum of the angles of all sub-triangles are equal to the angle of the collision triangle.
This process sounds complicated but it didn’t take me that long to get it done. Once I had it figured it out, I managed to paint the 2 sight cones – sight and peripheral sight – with ease. I’m keeping the number of sub-triangles low o avoid performance issues. I still have to fine tune it to get the best results without compromising in performance but I’m happy with how it works.
Look behind you! A three-headed monkey!
I’m sure more than once you have felt a presence behind you and you turn and someone is there (hopefully a friendly face). Well, that “sixth sense” of presence is something that also plays a role in a stealth game and, of course, I felt like I had to add it to my game. Thankfully it was a much easier task than the one I have just described.
To have this presence sense implemented I only had to check collisions with the player around the enemy with a small radius. Once detected the enemy takes a few steps back in shock looking at the player and after a couple tenths of second the state changes to combat. Sweet and simple.
Coming up with all this implementations has been both a frustrating and fun experience. I get easily get desperate when math come into play, making me feel dumb and boosting my impostor syndrome to the limit. But at the same time there is a great feel of accomplishment when you manage to push through and find a solution for the task you are working on.
There’s much more work I’ve done in the past few weeks. I’ve coded a big part of the enemy states, I’ve have my main character moving around, shooting, throwing rocks and a whole lot of other features. But I’ll leave that for another day.